Selasa, 01 Maret 2011

Berpikir Kritis III


Mahasiswa Berbakti Untuk Pendidikan

Pendidikan Sebagai Investasi Jangka Panjang
(An Evaluation and Criticism )



Critical Thinking Resources

What Is Critical Thinking?


As the basis for our Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP), critical thinking has been identified as a key to successful learning outcomes for our students. Angelina College defines Critical Thinking as the dynamic process of questioning preconceptions and biases through the gathering and evaluation of data to reach new conclusions that consider realistic implications and consequences.

Although there are several models and strategies that promote critical thinking, one model should be utilized to facilitate consistency and a common understanding for curriculum design and evaluation. The curriculum at Angelina College will reflect the model prescribed by Richard Paul and Linda Elder. This model of critical thinking is built on a foundation of three concepts: elements of reasoning, intellectual standards, and intellectual traits.

All thinking consists of parts or elements. When we analyze our thinking or reasoning, we should consider the Elements of Thought/Reasoning:


When checking the quality of our reasoning, Intellectual Standards should be applied to our thinking:



Our thinking should reflect the following characteristics or Intellectual Traits:



For more information regarding Paul/Elder Model of Critical Thinking, visit :

The Foundation for Critical Thinking
www.criticalthinking.org


General Critical Thinking Resources


Assessment Tools and Resources

Angelo, T. A. & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. Jossey-Bass.

Huba, M. E. & Freed.J. E. (2000). Learner Centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the focus from Teaching to Learning. Allyn and Bacon.

Books

Boyd, Robert. (2002). Critical reasoning and logic. Prentice Hall.

Epstein, Richard, L. (2005). Critical thinking. Wadsworth.

Hiler, Wesley & Paul, Richard. (2005). Active and cooperative learning, (2nd ed.). Foundation of Critical Thinking.

McWhorter, Kathleen, T. (2006). Study and critical thinking skills in college, (6th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Nosich, Gerald, M. (2005). Learning to think things through: A guide to critical thinking across the curriculum. Prentice Hall.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2005). The miniature guide to critical thinking: Concepts and tools. Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2003). How to improve student learning: 30 practical ideas. Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2004). The art of strategic thinking: 25 weeks to better thinking and better living. Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2003). How to write a paragraph, (5th ed.). Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2006). How to read a paragraph. Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2005). The miniature guide to the art of asking essential questions, (3rd ed.). Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2001). How to study and learn a discipline. Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Ruggiero, Vincent, R. (2006). Becoming a critical thinker, (5th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company.

Walter, Timothy, L., Knudsvig, Glenn M., & Smith, Donald E. (2002). Critical thinking: Building the basics. Wadsworth.

Handouts

How to Improve Student Learning (by Dr. Rochelle Brunson of Alvin Community College)


PowerPoint Presentations

Critical Thinking (by Sellestine Hunt and Marianna Duncan)
QEP (by Dr. Laura Hebert)


Websites

Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction
http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/DEXadobe.PDF

Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum at Albuquerque TVI Community College
http://planet.tvi.edu/ctac/

Handbook of Resources for the Year of Critical Thinking
http://academic.pg.cc.md.us/~wpeirce/MCCCTR/handbook.pdf

The Foundation for Critical Thinking
www.criticalthinking.org

Washington State Critical Thinking Project
http://wsuctproject.wsu.edu/ph.htm

Surry Community College – Critical Thinking Website
http://www.surry.edu/about/ct/index.html


Websites – Assessment
Rubrics.com
www.rubrics.com

Rubistar
http://rubistar.4teachers.org

teAchnology
www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/

Educational Technology
http://edtech.sandi.net

Rubrician
www.rubrician.com

Assessment at SJSU
www.sjsu.edu/ugs/assessment/as-tools.htm

Business Division
(Saundra May, Keith New)


Books

Allen, Roberta & Mascolini, Marcia. (1997). The process of writing: Composing through critical thinking. Prentice Hall.

Kubasek, Nancy, K., Brennan, Bartley, A., & Browne, Neil. (2006). Legal environment of business: A critical thinking approach. Prentice Hall.

Sormunen, C. (1992). Critical thinking in business education. Paper presented at the American Vocational Association Convention, St. Louis, MO, December 1992.
Critical thinking can be evaluated through authentic assessment using a four-step process: clarify reasons for the assessment, clarify performance to be evaluated design exercises, and design a performance rating plan.


Fine Arts Division
(Sabrina Collins, Burlon Wilkerson)


Books

Eyerdam, Pamela, J. (2003). Using internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in visual arts. Libraries Unlimited.

Websites

CEDFA – Critical Thinking in Art
http://finearts.esc20.net/art/art_strategies/art_strat_crit.html

CEDFA – Instructional Strategies (Critical Thinking and Problem Solving)
http://www.cedfa.org/teaching/index.php?file=instruction/is_critthinking.txt&expand=3,14

Health Careers Division
(Kathy Hall, Angie Wilcox, Alyssa Bass)


Books

Durand, Kathryn, S. (1999). Critical thinking: Developing skills in radiography. F.A. Davis.

Preusser, Barbara A. (2004). Critical thinking in medical-surgical settings: A case study approach. Elsevier Health Sciences.

LeMone, Priscilla & Burke, Karen. (2003). Medical-surgical nursing: Critical thinking in client care. Prentice Hall.

Lipe, Saundra, K. & Beasley, Sharon. (2003). Critical thinking in nursing: A cognitive skills workbook. Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.

Scheffer, Barbara. (2005). Critical thinking tactics for nurses. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Inc.

White, Lois. (2001). Critical thinking in practical/vocational nursing. Thomson Delmar Learning.

Wilkinson, Judith, M. (2007). Nursing process and critical thinking (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Liberal Arts Division
(Joe Ragan, Marianna Duncan,
Diana Throckmorton, Edith Miller)


Books

Barnet, Sylvan & Bedau, Hugo. (2004). Critical thinking, reading, and writing: A brief guide to argument. Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Bensley, D. Alan. (1997). Critical thinking in psychology: A unified skills approach. Wadsworth.

Cromwell, Lucy, S. (1986). Teaching critical thinking in the arts and humanities. Alverno Productions: Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Halonen, Jane, S. (1995). Teaching critical thinking in psychology. Alverno Productions: Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Meltzoff, Julian. (1998). Critical thinking about research: Psychology and related fields. American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C.

Shiveley, James, M. & VanFossen, Phillip, J. (2001). Using internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in government economics, and contemporary world issues. Libraries Unlimited.


Science and Mathematics Division
(Laura Hebert, Charlotte Barker)


Books

Blitzer, Robert, F. (2005). Thinking mathematically. Prentice Hall.

Bluman, Allan, G. (2003). Critical thinking workbook: Student edition T/a elementary statistics. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.

Glazer, E. (2001). Using internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in mathematics. Libraries Unlimited.

Johnson, Carolyn. (2003). Using internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in the sciences. Libraries Unlimited.

Mendenhall, William & Sincich, Terry. (2007). Statistics for engineers and the sciences. Prentice Hall.

Paul, Richard & Elder, Linda. (2003). Scientific Thinking. Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Sharma, Martha, B. & Elbow, Gary, S. (2000). Using internet primary sources to teach critical thinking skills in geography. Libraries Unlimited.

Technology and Workforce Division
(Jayne McCurry, Tara Newman)


Books

Currier, Katherine, A. & Eimermann, Thomas, E. (2005). Introduction to law for paralegals: A critical thinking approach. Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Jonassen, David, H. (2000). Computers as mindtools for schools: Engaging critical thinking. Prentice Hall.

Kubasek, Nancy, K., Brennan, Bartley, A., & Browne, Neil. (2006). Legal environment of business: A critical thinking approach. Prentice Hall.

Kynell, Theresa, C. & Stone, Wendy, K. (1998). Scenarios for technical communication: Critical thinking and writing. Longman.

Mahlke, V. B. (1993). Design technology in the elementary school. Technology Teacher 53 (3).
The design brief process in technology education begins with authentic situations and enables students to use prior knowledge, research, problem-solving, and other creative thinking skills and observe their learning processes.

Mendenhall, William & Sincich, Terry. (2007). Statistics for engineers and the sciences. Prentice Hall.

Peers, M. G. (1993). A teacher/researcher's experience with performance-based assessment as a diagnostic tool. Journal of Reading 36 (7).
Vocational students in a composition class devise a solution to a hypothetical problem that is scored on several dimensions.

Sormunen, C. (1992). Critical thinking in business education. Paper presented at the American Vocational Association Convention, St. Louis, MO, December 1992.
Critical thinking can be evaluated through authentic assessment using a four-step process: clarify reasons for the assessment, clarify performance to be evaluated design exercises, and design a performance rating plan.

Websites

Authentic Assessment in Vocational Education
http://www.calpro-online.org/ERIC/docgen.asp?tbl=archive&ID=A017

Factors Affecting Technological Trouble Shooting Skills by Randall T. MacPherson (Boeing Rotorcraft Company) http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v35n4/macpherson.html



Hubungan:
1.www.banjarcyberschool.co.cc
2.Fisika Bumi Siliwangi Innovation, Research and Development Center
3.Speech from:
Prof. Eisuke Saito Ph.D. (The First International Seminary on Lesson Study, JICA, Japan International Cooperation Agency)
4.Bpk. Taufik Hidayat M.Sc., Ph.D.
(Dosen FPMIPA UPI, Doktor Bioteknologi dari Tokyo University)
5.The Sundanese Cyber School Alliance

References:

# ^ According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest uses of "critical" (1580) had acquired negative connotations. By 1650, however, it was being used in the sense of "involving or exercising careful judgment or observation," though the OED calls this sense obsolete "or merged in other senses." The phrase "critical thinking" appears to be an example of the survival of this positive sense.
# ^ Edward M. Glaser, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking, Teacher’s College, Columbia University, 1941.[page # needed]
# ^ Paul, Dr. Richard; Elder, Dr. Linda, The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Dillon Beach: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0944583104.[page # needed]
# Damer, T. Edward. Attacking Faulty Reasoning, 5th Edition, Wadsworth, 2005. ISBN 0-534-60516-8
# Dauer, Francis Watanabe. Critical thinking: an introduction to reasoning
# Facione, P. 2007. Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts - 2007 Update
# Facione, PA, Facione, NC, and Giancarlo, CA.(2000). The Disposition Toward Critical Thinking: Its Character, Measurement, and Relationship to Critical Thinking Skill. Informal Logic, Volume 20, Number 1, pp 61-84.
# Hamby, B.W. The Philosophy of Anything: Critical Thinking in Context. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque Iowa, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7575-4724-9

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest uses of "critical" (1580) had acquired negative connotations. By 1650, however, it was being used in the sense of "involving or exercising careful judgment or observation," though the OED calls this sense obsolete "or merged in other senses." The phrase "critical thinking" appears to be an example of the survival of this positive sense.
  2. ^ Edward M. Glaser, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking, Teacher’s College, Columbia University, 1941.[page # needed]
  3. ^ Paul, Dr. Richard; Elder, Dr. Linda, The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Dillon Beach: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0944583104.[page # needed]
  4. ^ William Graham Sumner, Folkways, 1906.[page # needed]
  5. ^ About The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory by Thomas F. Nelson Laird, Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research
  6. ^ Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning, page 46
  7. ^ Critical Thinking FAQs from Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations
  8. ^ "Thinking Skills", University of Cambridge Local Examinations
  9. ^ "New GCEs for 2008", Assessment and Qualifications Alliance
  10. ^ Lion Gardiner, Redesigning Higher Education: Producing Dramatic Gains in Student Learning, in conjunction with: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, 1995

References

  • Whyte, J. 2003. Bad Thoughts - A Guide to Clear Thinking. Published by Corvo. ISBN 0-9543255-3-2.

External links


Ucapan Terima Kasih:
1. Dra. Roswati Mudjiarto M.Pd.

(Dosen Senior di Jurusan Fisika Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia) Sebagian tulisan ini adalah atas motivasi beliau


2.Bpk. Taufik Hidayat M.Sc., Ph.D.
(Dosen FPMIPA UPI, Doktor Bioteknologi dari Tokyo University)


3. Yusuf Kurniawan S.Pd.*

( Seorang Pendidik di SMKN Raja Desa)


Disusun Ulang Oleh:
1.Agung Febrianto (Mahasiswa Ekonomi UNSOED)
2. Ade Akhyar N. (Mahasiswa Teknik Geology UNSOED)
3. Riki (Mahasiswa Teknik Sipil Universitas Indonesia)
4. Kurniawan (Mahasiswa STIK Bina Putera Banjar)
5. Arip Nurahman (Mahasiswa Pendidikan Fisika FPMIPA UPI, Follower Open Course Ware At MIT-Harvard University. USA.)

Semoga Bermanfaat dan Terima Kasih



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