Minggu, 16 November 2008

Ringkasan English

Ringkasan English Grammar in Use For Elementary level

( Cambridge University press )

=> Simple present

Am, is, are

Example :

My name is Lisa

I'm 22.

I'm Indonesian. I'm from Surabaya

My favorite colour is blue

My favorite sports are football and swimming

I'm interested in art.

I'm cold. Can you close the window, please?

John is afraid of dogs but he'snt afraid of crocodile.

that's very kinds of you.

I am a student

You

We are a student

They

He

She is a student

It

Bentuk negativ

- I'm not a student

- You're not a student

Pertanyaan.

- Am I a student?

- Are you a student?

- Yes you're. Yes you're a student.

Bentuk pasiv

Butter is made from milk

Present continuous

(I'm doing )

Positiv

- They're building a new aircraft at the moment.

- She is eating hamburger. She's reading a book.

- It's raining. The sun isn't shining.


Question

- It is raining? Yes it is? / No it is.

- What's she doing? She's reading the book

I am (not) + verb ing

You

We are (not) + verb ing

They

He

She is (not) + verb ing

It

Present simple

I / you/ we/ they + verb1 (read, like, do, speak...)

He/ she/ it + verb1 (does, reads, likes, speaks...)

Bentuk positif

- I work in a shop.

- Linda lives in London. Her parents live in Schotland.

Bentuk negativ

- I do not (don't) work in a shop.

- Linda doesn't live in London.

Bentuk pertanyaan

- Do you work in a shop? Yes I do. No I don't.

- Does Lisa live in London? Yes, She does. No she does not (doesn't)

- Do you always have a breakfast?

Present continuous and present simple

Jim is watching television. She'snt playing guitar. But he has a guitar. He often plays it and he play very well. Jim plays the guitar but she'snt playing the guitar now.

Is he playing the guitar? -->Present continus

Doesn he play the guitar? -->Present simple

Dalam Present continus kata-kata dibawah ini tidak bisa di pakai.

Like, love, want, understand, remember, depend, prefer, hate, need, mean, believe, forget.

I'm tired. I want to go home. (bukan i'm wanting)

I have.../I'v got. . .

- I have got blue eyes. Or I have blue eyes.

- He has got two sister. Or He has two sister.

bentuk negativ

- I haven't got blue eyes.

- He hasn't got two sister

Bentuk pertanyaan

- Have I got blue eyes?or have I blue eyes?

- Has he got two sister?or has he two sister?

=>Was/ Were

At midnight he wasn't at work. He is asleep.

Present ''am/is'' -->''was'' in past tense.

I'm tired (now) --> I was tired last night.

Where is Ann? --> Where was Ann yesterday? She was at work yesterday.

=>Worked / got/ went

(past simple / simple past tense)

they watch television every morning ->present simple

They watched television yesterday morning.

''Watched'' is the past simple (kata kerja lampau)

Biasanya kata kerja pada past simple ditambah -ed

Work -> worked

Live -> lived

Stay -> stayed

Namun untuk kata kerja tidak beraturan (irreguler verb) aturan ini tidak berlaku

see -->saw

Begin -->began

Build-->built

Buy-->bought

Get-->got

Come-->came, pay->paid, do/does->did, has/have->had. catch->cought, break->broke, hear->heard

-I usually get up in the morning but this morning I got up at 9.30.

We use did in past simple negative and question.

- I didn't watch television yesterday.

We use did/didn't + infinitive (watch/ play/ go (bentuk 1)

- He had a mother --> He didn't have a mother

- They went to Jakarta yesterday.

--> They didn't go to Jakarta yesterday.

--> Did they go to Jakarta? Yes they did/ No they didn't.

=>I was doing ...

Past continus form.

It's 6 o'clock now. Sarah is at home. She is watching television. At 4 o'clock she wasn't at home. She was at the sports club. She was playing tennis. She wasn't watching television.

Was/ were + verb -ing is the past continus



I

You was /wasn't + verb ing

We

They

He

She were/ weren't + verb ing

It



What was he/she / I/ it doing in the school ?

what were you/ we/ they doing in the class?

Jack was reading a book when the phone rang--> past continus

He stopped reading and answered the phone --> past simple.

=>I h'v done. . .

Present perfect

My shoes is dirty. I am cleaning my shoes. I h'v cleaned my shoes.



I

You have/haven't + verb past participle

We

They

He

She has/hasn't + verb past participle

It

=>Present perfect

I/ you/ we/ they + have/havn't + past participle

He/ she/ it + has/ hasn't + past participle

-i'v lost my passport = I cannot find my passport now

- Where has Linda? She has gone to bed. : She is in bed now.

- We have bought a new car.

=> I have just. . ., I'v already . ., I havn't .. .yet

-- I have just : a short time ago.

- He has just arrived.

- I have just have a dinner.

-- I have already : Before you/I expected (duga, kira)

- They have already arrived.( before you expected)

It's only nine o'clock and Aan has already gone to bed (before I expected )

- We have already met.

- They havn't arrived yet.

- Has Linda started her new job yet?

- Have you worn your new dress yet?

=> Have you ever...

- Have you been to Japan? (in your live) no I don't.

- Rany has lived in many places.

- I have never ridden a horse in my live.

=> How long have you. . .?

- Aaron is on holyday in Irreland. He is there now. She arrived in Irreland on Monday and today is thursday so He has been in Irreland for three days

- How long have you been married?

- We have been married for five years.

- I'v known her for a long time.

=> Present Perfect Continus

-- Have been + v ing

- We have been learning German for two years.

- She's(She has) been watching TV for one hour.

- It's been raining all day

=> For, Since, ago

--For

- Ricard has been in Canada since Friday.

-- Since < how long>

- We have been watching TV since 9 o'clock.

-- ago < before now>

- I had dinner an hour ago.

=> Perbandingan antara present perfect dengan simple past

- I have lost my key.

- Bill has gone home.--->present perfec

- I lost my key yesterday.

- Bill went home ten minute ago.--->simple past disini terlihat bahwa dalam simple past waktu lampaunya jelas sedang pada present perfect tidak ada keterangan waktu secara spesifik.

=> Bentuk pasiv

- Somebody cleans the offiice everyday.--> The offiice is cleaned every day.

- Somebody cleaned the offiice yesterday.--> The offiice was cleaned yesterday.

- Oranges are imported into Britain.

- I am never invited to parties.

- This house was built 100 years ago.

- These house were built 100 years ago.

- I was born in London in 1984.

- We were woken up by a loud noise.: The noise woke us up.

- The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell.

=> Is being done < present continus passive >

- My car is being repaired.

- The offiice is being cleaned.

=> has/ have been . . .

- The door has been painted.

- My key has been stolen.

=> tobe (am, is, are, was, were)

- Present continus --> It is not raining at the moment be+ v1 ing

- Past tense--> It wasn't raining so we went out to be + v(past participle)+ ing

=> Passive present simple

- The two room is cleaned every day. Be (am, is, are) + past participle

=> Passive past simple

- The two room was cleaned yesterday.

=>Present simple negative

- I don't like tea.

=>Past simple negative

Invinitif
break
know
begin
go

Past simple
broke
knew
begin
went

Pastparticiple
broke
known
began
gone



- I didn't watch TV Yesterday.




Sylvia saw Paul. Who saw Paul ? Sylvia.( Sylvia saw him)

-What happened? That's mean ->something happened- what ?

-Who did you met yesterday.-> You met somebody

-who? Who for somebody

-What is your favorite song?-> what for something.

Tom's father is in hospital.-> Which hospital is he in?

Kate is going on holyday. who with?-> Who is she going with?

I want to talk to you. What about ?->what do you want to talk to me?

Too

-His shoes is too big for him

There is too much sugar in it kebalikan dari ->There is not enough sugar in it.

It’s too cold to sit outside

She speak too much fast for me to understand

Too+ adjective

-too+ loud, hard, long, tired, small

Too +much, many : more than you want, more than is good.

There is too much rain here.

There are too much people here.

There are too many cars here.

Enough

She hasn’t enough money to buy sandwich.

He isn’t tall enough.

Is the radio loud enough for you.

There isn’t enough chairs for every body to sit down.

The oldest

My book is the biggest book.

His car is biger than your car.

Her house is more expensive than my house.

Her house is the most expensive house in this area.

It is the wors house that I’ve ever seen.

Good --> best

Bad ---> the worst pretty--> the pretiest

Easy--> the easiest heavy--> the heavie

Not as…..as

Rome is not as old as Athens.

I don’t know as much people as you : You know much people than me.

She is not as old as him.

My hair is the same colour as your’s.

Than …..

No more than that.

You go out more than me.

I can run more fast than him.

She is taller than her husband.

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