( Cambridge University press )
=> Simple present
Am, is, are
My name is Lisa
I'm Indonesian. I'm from Surabaya
My favorite colour is blue
My favorite sports are football and swimming
I'm interested in art.
I'm cold. Can you close the window, please?
John is afraid of dogs but he'snt afraid of crocodile.
that's very kinds of you.
I am a student
We are a student
She is a student
- I'm not a student
- You're not a student
- Am I a student?
- Are you a student?
- Yes you're. Yes you're a student.
Butter is made from milk
(I'm doing )
- They're building a new aircraft at the moment.
- She is eating hamburger. She's reading a book.
- It's raining. The sun isn't shining.
- It is raining? Yes it is? / No it is.
- What's she doing? She's reading the book
I am (not) + verb ing
We are (not) + verb ing
She is (not) + verb ing
I / you/ we/ they + verb1 (read, like, do, speak...)
He/ she/ it + verb1 (does, reads, likes, speaks...)
- I work in a shop.
- Linda lives in London. Her parents live in Schotland.
- I do not (don't) work in a shop.
- Linda doesn't live in London.
- Do you work in a shop? Yes I do. No I don't.
- Does Lisa live in London? Yes, She does. No she does not (doesn't)
- Do you always have a breakfast?
Present continuous and present simple
Jim is watching television. She'snt playing guitar. But he has a guitar. He often plays it and he play very well. Jim plays the guitar but she'snt playing the guitar now.
Is he playing the guitar? -->Present continus
Doesn he play the guitar? -->Present simple
Dalam Present continus kata-kata dibawah ini tidak bisa di pakai.
Like, love, want, understand, remember, depend, prefer, hate, need, mean, believe, forget.
I'm tired. I want to go home. (bukan i'm wanting)
I have.../I'v got. . .
- I have got blue eyes. Or I have blue eyes.
- He has got two sister. Or He has two sister.
- I haven't got blue eyes.
- He hasn't got two sister
- Have I got blue eyes?or have I blue eyes?
- Has he got two sister?or has he two sister?
At midnight he wasn't at work. He is asleep.
Present ''am/is'' -->''was'' in past tense.
I'm tired (now) --> I was tired last night.
Where is Ann? --> Where was Ann yesterday? She was at work yesterday.
=>Worked / got/ went
(past simple / simple past tense)
they watch television every morning ->present simple
They watched television yesterday morning.
''Watched'' is the past simple (kata kerja lampau)
Biasanya kata kerja pada past simple ditambah -ed
Work -> worked
Live -> lived
Stay -> stayed
Namun untuk kata kerja tidak beraturan (irreguler verb) aturan ini tidak berlaku
Come-->came, pay->paid, do/does->did, has/have->had. catch->cought, break->broke, hear->heard
-I usually get up in the morning but this morning I got up at 9.30.
We use did in past simple negative and question.
- I didn't watch television yesterday.
We use did/didn't + infinitive (watch/ play/ go (bentuk 1)
- He had a mother --> He didn't have a mother
- They went to Jakarta yesterday.
--> They didn't go to Jakarta yesterday.
--> Did they go to Jakarta? Yes they did/ No they didn't.
=>I was doing ...
Past continus form.
It's 6 o'clock now. Sarah is at home. She is watching television. At 4 o'clock she wasn't at home. She was at the sports club. She was playing tennis. She wasn't watching television.
Was/ were + verb -ing is the past continus
You was /wasn't + verb ing
She were/ weren't + verb ing
What was he/she / I/ it doing in the school ?
what were you/ we/ they doing in the class?
Jack was reading a book when the phone rang--> past continus
He stopped reading and answered the phone --> past simple.
=>I h'v done. . .
My shoes is dirty. I am cleaning my shoes. I h'v cleaned my shoes.
You have/haven't + verb past participle
She has/hasn't + verb past participle
I/ you/ we/ they + have/havn't + past participle
He/ she/ it + has/ hasn't + past participle
-i'v lost my passport = I cannot find my passport now
- Where has Linda? She has gone to bed. : She is in bed now.
- We have bought a new car.
=> I have just. . ., I'v already . ., I havn't .. .yet
-- I have just : a short time ago.
- He has just arrived.
- I have just have a dinner.
-- I have already : Before you/I expected (duga, kira)
- They have already arrived.( before you expected)
It's only nine o'clock and Aan has already gone to bed (before I expected )
- We have already met.
- They havn't arrived yet.
- Has Linda started her new job yet?
- Have you worn your new dress yet?
=> Have you ever...
- Have you been to Japan? (in your live) no I don't.
- Rany has lived in many places.
- I have never ridden a horse in my live.
=> How long have you. . .?
- Aaron is on holyday in Irreland. He is there now. She arrived in Irreland on Monday and today is thursday so He has been in Irreland for three days
- How long have you been married?
- We have been married for five years.
- I'v known her for a long time.
=> Present Perfect Continus
-- Have been + v ing
- We have been learning German for two years.
- She's(She has) been watching TV for one hour.
- It's been raining all day
=> For, Since, ago
- Ricard has been in Canada since Friday.
-- Since < how long>
- We have been watching TV since 9 o'clock.
-- ago < before now>
- I had dinner an hour ago.
=> Perbandingan antara present perfect dengan simple past
- I have lost my key.
- Bill has gone home.--->present perfec
- I lost my key yesterday.
- Bill went home ten minute ago.--->simple past disini terlihat bahwa dalam simple past waktu lampaunya jelas sedang pada present perfect tidak ada keterangan waktu secara spesifik.
=> Bentuk pasiv
- Somebody cleans the offiice everyday.--> The offiice is cleaned every day.
- Somebody cleaned the offiice yesterday.--> The offiice was cleaned yesterday.
- Oranges are imported into Britain.
- I am never invited to parties.
- This house was built 100 years ago.
- These house were built 100 years ago.
- I was born in London in 1984.
- We were woken up by a loud noise.: The noise woke us up.
- The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell.
=> Is being done < present continus passive >
- My car is being repaired.
- The offiice is being cleaned.
=> has/ have been . . .
- The door has been painted.
- My key has been stolen.
=> tobe (am, is, are, was, were)
- Present continus --> It is not raining at the moment be+ v1 ing
- Past tense--> It wasn't raining so we went out to be + v(past participle)+ ing
=> Passive present simple
- The two room is cleaned every day. Be (am, is, are) + past participle
=> Passive past simple
- The two room was cleaned yesterday.
=>Present simple negative
- I don't like tea.
=>Past simple negative
- I didn't watch TV Yesterday.
Sylvia saw Paul. Who saw Paul ? Sylvia.( Sylvia saw him)
-What happened? That's mean ->something happened- what ?
-Who did you met yesterday.-> You met somebody
-who? Who for somebody
-What is your favorite song?-> what for something.
Tom's father is in hospital.-> Which hospital is he in?
Kate is going on holyday. who with?-> Who is she going with?
I want to talk to you. What about ?->what do you want to talk to me?
-His shoes is too big for him
There is too much sugar in it kebalikan dari ->There is not enough sugar in it.
It’s too cold to sit outside
She speak too much fast for me to understand
-too+ loud, hard, long, tired, small
Too +much, many : more than you want, more than is good.
There is too much rain here.
There are too much people here.
There are too many cars here.
She hasn’t enough money to buy sandwich.
He isn’t tall enough.
Is the radio loud enough for you.
There isn’t enough chairs for every body to sit down.
My book is the biggest book.
His car is biger than your car.
Her house is more expensive than my house.
Her house is the most expensive house in this area.
It is the wors house that I’ve ever seen.
Good --> best
Bad ---> the worst pretty--> the pretiest
Easy--> the easiest heavy--> the heavie
Rome is not as old as Athens.
I don’t know as much people as you : You know much people than me.
She is not as old as him.
My hair is the same colour as your’s.
No more than that.
You go out more than me.
I can run more fast than him.
She is taller than her husband.