Kamis, 31 Januari 2008

Kebutuhan e-Learning di Kota Banjar

Kebutuhan e-learning di Kota Banjar
Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia,
&
Follower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University, U.S.A. 







(Buku Karya, Burrhus Frederic Skinner, He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University )

Introduction
E-learning (or sometimes electronic learning or eLearning) is a term which is commonly used, but does not have a common definition[1]. Most frequently it seems to be used for web-based distance education, with no face-to-face interaction. However, also much broader definitions are common. For example, it may include all types of technology-enhanced learning(TEL), where technology is used to support the learning process. Although pedagogy is usually not part of the definition, some authors do include it. For example in this definition, where e-learning is said to be: "pedagogy empowered by digital technology" [2].
It is important to realize that the term e-learning is ambiguous. It is nearly impossible to define what it is, as it has different meanings to different people [1]. Furthermore, it is often used interchangeably with various other related terms, such as distance learning, distributed learning, and electronic learning[3]. The meaning of the term also seems to be dependent on the context in which it is used. In companies, it often refers to the strategies that use the company network to deliver training courses to employees. Lately in most Universities, e-learning is used to define a specific mode to attend a course or programmes of study where the students rarely or never meet face-to-face, nor access on-campus educational facilities, because they study online.

E-Learning also often refers to the first generation of systems supporting the learning process (such as LMS, LCMS), that relied on the idea of replicating the concept of the classroom in an online setting. E-Learning, that was affected (with some delays) by the Dot-com bubble, and many failures can be reported related to this initial vision [4].

This E-Learning vision constrasts with more recent approaches (often termed Learning 2.0, in reference to the Web 2.0) relying more on collaboration, informal learning, and blended learning (using technology to enhance, rather than replace, the physical pedagogical processes).
(Wikipedia)


Contents 

Pada tahun-tahun terakhir ini, dunia pendidikan kita tak putus- putusnya diterpa oleh berbagai persoalan yang tidak ringan. Mulai dari mutu dan fasilitas pendidikan yang dipertanyakan, kekurangan tenaga pengajar, korupsi, sampai melonjaknya biaya pendidikan yang semakin lama terasa semakin tidak terjangkau oleh masyarakat, terutama kalangan menengah ke bawah. Namun di sisi lain dunia, pendidikan juga mengalami banyak kemajuan. Keberadaan internet telah mengubah paradigma berpikir konvensional serta berhasil menawarkan alternatif pembelajaran dalam pendidikan. Salah satunya adalah e-Learning. 

Dengan e-Learning belajar tidak lagi dibatasi oleh tempat dan waktu. e-Learning menjadi salah satu solusi bagi problematika dunia yang semakin sibuk dengan menawarkan fleksibilitas dan mobilitas yang lebih tinggi. Pembaca mungkin sudah mengetahui atau mungkin sudah mendalami lebih jauh mengenai e-learning atau metode pembelajaran jarak jauh melalui internet. disini saya akan sedikit membahas mengenai metode tersebut. Di beberapa negara, e-learning telah menjadi suatu gerakan nasional.

Di Asia Tenggara, negara-negara yang diketahui tengah menggarap secara serius inisiatif e-learning selain Filipina, juga Thailand. Saat ini e-learning tidak hanya digunakan di sekolah-sekolah atau universitas. Beberapa perusahaan di Indonesia sudah mulai melakukan inisiatif untuk mengembangkan metode pembelajaran ini. 

Tujuannya adalah tentu untuk meningkatkan kualitas SDM bagi Sekolah, Organisasi dan Perusahaan. selain lebih efisien, penggunaan e-learning juga dapat memberikan dampak yang positif bagi keuangan perusahaan. sebuah perusahaan tidak perlu melakukan training khusus untuk para karyawannya untuk mengenal dan mendalami mengenai perusahaan maupun bisnis perusahaan. 

Apalagi untuk sebuah perusahaan yang cabangnya tersebar di seluruh indonesia. seorang karyawan bisa belajar dimanapun dan kapanpun mereka berada hanya melalui fasilitas internet. Bisa di kantor ataupun di warnet sekalipun. Sehubungan dengan perkembangan tersebut maka sepantasnya Kota Banjar, khususnya Dinas Pendidikan dapat membangun sebuah e-learning demi kemajuan pada sektor pendidikan. 

Salah satu perangkat e-learning yang sangat penting peranannya adalah Learning Management System (LMS). 

LMS adalah sebuah paket solusi yang dirancang untuk penyampaian, pelacakan, pelaporan dan pengelolaan materi belajar, serta memantau kemajuan siswa dan interaksi siswa. Agar kursus-kursus atau modul-modul pembelajaran dapat berjalan dengan baik di semua LMS yang ada. Maka dibuat sebuah spesifikasi yang memenuhi standar internasional. Spesifikasi tersebut diberi nama Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 

SCORM dikembangkan oleh United States Department of Defense (DoD) untuk mendukung pengembangan e-learning. SCORM adalah framework berbasis XML yang berfungsi untuk mendefinisikan dan mengirimkan seluruh informasi yang dibutuhkan oleh LMS.

Content Issues

Content is a core component of e-learning and includes issues such as pedagogy and learning object re-use.

Pedagogical elements

Pedagogical elements are an attempt to define structures or units of educational material. For example, this could be a lesson, an assignment, a multiple choice question, a quiz, a discussion group or a case study. These units should be format independent, so although it may be in any of the following methods, pedagogical structures would not include a textbook, a web page, a video conference or Podcast.
When beginning to create e-Learning content, the pedagogical approaches need to be evaluated. Simple pedagogical approaches make it easy to create content, but lack flexibility, richness and downstream functionality. On the other hand, complex pedagogical approaches can be difficult to set up and slow to develop, though they have the potential to provide more engaging learning experiences for students. Somewhere between these extremes is an ideal pedagogy that allows a particular educator to effectively create educational materials while simultaneously providing the most engaging educational experiences for students.
Pedagogical approaches or perspectives
It is possible to use various pedagogical approaches for eLearning which include:
§ instructional design - the traditional pedagogy of instruction which is curriculum focused, and is developed by a centralized educating group or a single teacher.
§ social-constructivist - this pedagogy is particularly well afforded by the use of discussion forums, blogs, wiki and on-line collaborative activities. It is a collaborative approach that opens educational content creation to a wider group including the students themselves. The One Laptop Per Child Foundation attempted to use a constructivist approach in its project[22]
§ Laurillard's Conversational Model[23] is also particularly relevant to eLearning, and Gilly Salmon's Five-Stage Model is a pedagogical approach to the use of discussion boards [24].
§ Cognitive perspective focuses on the cognitive processes involved in learning as well as how the brain works.[25]
§ Emotional perspective focuses on the emotional aspects of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun, etc.[26]
§ Behavioural perspective focuses on the skills and behavioural outcomes of the learning process. Role-playing and application to on-the-job settings.[27]
§ Contextual perspective focuses on the environmental and social aspects which can stimulate learning. Interaction with other people, collaborative discovery and the importance of peer support as well as pressure.[28]

Reusability, standards and learning objects

Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically-based teaching materials and in particular creating or re-using Learning Objects. These are self contained units that are properly tagged with keywords, or other metadata, and often stored in an XML file format. Creating a course requires putting together a sequence of learning objects. There are both proprietary and open, non-commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository.
A common standard format for e-learning content is SCORM whilst other specifications allow for the transporting of "learning objects" (Schools Framework) or categorizing metadata (LOM).
These standards themselves are early in the maturity process with the oldest being 8 years old. They are also relatively vertical specific: SIF is primarily pK-12, LOM is primarily Corp, Military and Higher Ed, and SCORM is primarily Military and Corp with some Higher Ed. PESC- the Post-Secondary Education Standards Council- is also making headway in developing standards and learning objects for the Higher Ed space, while SIF is beginning to seriously turn towards Instructional and Curriculum learning objects.
In the US pK12 space there are a host of content standards that are critical as well- the NCES data standards are a prime example. Each state government's content standards and achievement benchmarks are critical metadata for linking e-learning objects in that space.
An excellent example of e-learning that relates to knowledge management and reusability is Navy E-Learning, which is available to Active Duty, Retired, or Disable Military members. This on-line tool provides certificate courses to enrich the user in various subjects related to military training and civilian skill sets. The e-learning system not only provides learning objectives, but also evaluates the progress of the student and credit can be earned toward higher learning institutions. This reuse is an excellent example of knowledge retention and the cyclical process of knowledge transfer and use of data and records.
References
1. ^ a b Dublin, L. (2003). If You Only Look Under the Street Lamps... Or Nine e-Learning Myths. The eLearning Developers' Journal, 1-7.
3. ^ Oblinger, D.G. & Hawkins, B.L. (2005). The Myth about E-Learning. EDUCAUSE review, 14-15.
4. ^ Paulsen, M.F. (2009). "Resting in e-learning peace". Int. J. Networking and Virtual Organisations 6 (5): 460–475.
5. ^ Means, B.; Toyama, Y.; Murphy, R.; Bakia, M.; Jones, K. (2009), Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies, retrieved 20 August 2009
6. ^ a b Zemsky, R.; Massy, W. (2004), Thwarted Innovation: What Happened to elearning and Why., Report for The Weatherstation Project of The Learning Alliance at the University of Pennsylvania in cooperation with the Thomson Corporation, p. 51., pp. 51
8. ^ EC (2000). Communication from the Commission: E-Learning - Designing "Tejas at Niit" tomorrow’s education. Brussels: European Commission
9. ^ Nagy, A. (2005). The Impact of E-Learning, in: Bruck, P.A.; Buchholz, A.; Karssen, Z.; Zerfass, A. (Eds). E-Content: Technologies and Perspectives for the European Market. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp.79-96
11. ^ Hebert, D. G. (2007). "Five Challenges and Solutions in Online Music Teacher Education". Research and Issues in Music Education 5 (1).
13. ^ [1]
14. ^ [2]
16. ^ Karrer, T (2007) Understanding eLearning 2.0. Learning circuit
17. ^ Downes, S (2005) E-Learning 2.0. http://www.downes.ca/post/31741
18.^ Redecker, Christine (2009). "Review of Learning 2.0 Practices: Study on the Impact of Web 2.0 Innovations on Education and Training in Europe". JRC Scientific and technical report. (EUR 23664 EN – 2009).
19. ^ Karrer, T (2008) Corporate Long Tail Learning and Attention Crisis http://elearningtech.blogspot.com/2008/02/corporate-learning-long-tail-and.html
20. ^ a b Seely Brown, John; Adler, Richard P. (2008). "Minds on Fire:Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0". Educause review (January/February 2008): 16-32.
22. ^ [3]
24. ^ E-moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online - Gilly Salmon , Kogan Page, 2000, ISBN 0-7494-4085-6
25.^ Bloom, B. S., and D. R. Krathwohl. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1
26. ^ Bååth, J. A. (1982) "Distance Students' Learning - Empirical Findings and Theoretical Deliberations"
27.^ Areskog, N-H. (1995) The Tutorial Process - the Roles of Student Teacher and Tutor in a Long Term Perspective
28. ^ Black, J. & McClintock, R. (1995) "An Interpretation Construction Approach to Constructivist Design."
29. ^ Graziadei, W.D., 1993. Virtual Instructional Classroom Environment in Science (VICES) in Research, Education, Service & Teaching (REST) [4]

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