Selasa, 23 September 2008

Membangun Sekolah Bertaraf International (Inventing Better School)


Inventing Better School

Langkah Strategis Membangun Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Di Kota Banjar

1. Sarana dan Prasarana


Components of Most International Schools

(Hardware in International School)

Di Susun dan Di Edit oleh:

(Implementer)

Bpk. Endang J*. S.Pd., Drs. Ahmad S*., Drs. Nanang S.*

SMAN 1 Kota Banjar

(Conception)

Arip Nurahman and Ade Akhyar N.

Department of Physics Education Indonesia University of Education, Bandung Indonesia and

Follower Open Course Ware at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge M.A., USA.

Department of Geology Engineering UNSOED University, Purwokerto M.J. Indonesia

(Corrector in Language)

Yusuf Kurniawan S.Pd., Taryono S.Pd. & Arif Nurhasan S.T.


Abstract

A school (from Greek σχολή (scholē), originally meaning "leisure", and also "that in which leisure is employed", "school"), is an institution designed to allow and encourage students (or "pupils") to learn, under the supervision of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below), but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education.

In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also have access to and attend schools both before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3-5). University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after (or in lieu of) secondary school. A school may also be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.

There are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be for children with special needs when the government does not supply for them; religious, such as Islamic School,

Christian Schools, Khalsa Schools, Torah Schools and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements.

In homeschooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside of a traditional school building.


Introduction

History of Education

In its widest sense, the history of education is the history of teaching and of learning, and the history of what might be described as the curricula: what it is that is taught or learned.

Education has taken place in most communities since earliest times. Each generation has sought to pass on cultural and social values, traditions, morality, religion, knowledge and skills to the next generation. The history of the curricula of such informal education reflects human history itself, the history of knowledge, beliefs, skills and cultures of humanity.

In pre-literate societies, education was achieved orally and through imitation. Later, with the development of writing, it became possible for stories, poetry, knowledge, beliefs, and customs to be recorded and passed on more accurately to people out of earshot and to future generations.

As the customs and knowledge of ancient civilizations became more complex, many skills would have been learned from a master on the job, in construction, stone work, metal work, boat building, animal husbandry, agriculture, the making of weapons and defenses, the military skills, and many other occupations. Schools of formal learning were also established, although schooling was usually only available to a small part of the population, either at religious institutions or for the wealthy who could afford to pay for their tutors. The earliest known universities, or places of higher education, started teaching a millennium or more ago.

However, for most of the past 2000 years in many civilizations across the world, a formal general education, even at primary level, and literacy have been available only to small sections of the community. In most cultures, universal formal education of all children is a recent development, not occuring in many countries until after 1850. Even today, in some parts of the world, literacy rates are below 60 per cent (for example, in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and most of Africa).

Schools, colleges and universities have not been the only methods of formal education and training. Many professions have additional training requirements, and in Europe, from the Middle Ages until recent times, the skills of a trade were not generally learnt in a classroom, but rather by serving an apprenticeship.

Nowadays, formal education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula.

Contents

Components of most schools

Schools are organized spaces purposed for teaching and learning. The classrooms, where teachers teach and students learn, are of central importance, but typical schools have many other areas which may include:

  • Cafeteria (Commons), dining hall or canteen where students eat lunch.
  • athletic field, playground, gym, and/or track place where students participating in sports or physical education practice
  • auditorium or hall where student theatrical or musical productions can be staged and where all-school events such as assemblies are held.
  • office where the administrative work of the school is done.
  • library where students consult and check out books.
  • Specialized classrooms including laboratories for science education.
  • A Computer lab where computer-based work is done

A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books. The term can mean the collection, the building that houses such a collection, or both.

The collection and services are used by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research.

However, with the collection of media other than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for maps, prints, or other documents and works of art on various storage media such as microform (microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, CDs, LPs, cassettes, videotapes, and DVDs. Libraries may also provide public facilities to access CD-ROMs, subscription databases, and the Internet.

Thus, modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. In addition to providing materials, they also provide the services of specialists, librarians, who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs.

More recently, libraries are understood as extending beyond the physical walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of knowledge with a variety of digital tools.

The term "library" has itself acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use," and in this sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics and statistics, electronics and biology.

Contents

A computer lab, also known as a Computer Suite is typically a room which contains many networked computers for public use. Computer labs can be found in libraries, schools, government buildings, science labs, community centers, companies with IT departments that requires such a place for their employees to do their jobs, and research centers. They are distinct from Internet cafes in that the usage of the computer lab is typically free for those with access. Printers, scanners, and other peripherals may augment the lab setup.

Security

Because they are shared by multiple users, computers in typical labs often have security software installed. This software may limit, trace, or block certain activities. Macintosh computers may have software such as the older At Ease or the newer MacAdministrator. Windows computers may have protection software such as Fortres or Deep Freeze, and often contain network applications, like Novell NetWare for network security and administration. Due to the high number of computers in a lab, many lab administrators choose to use remote administration software such as VNC. Computer labs in schools often have classroom management software installed to manage and control student computer activity from the teacher’s computer, to monitor or prevent web browsing and to remotely control student computers.

The computers are often in a computer network. The computers may also be thin clients.

In addition, some companies such as Kinkos or Mail Boxes Etc. provide labs with computers to use for an hourly fee. Computers are used for research and other reasons.

See also



Maket Mini Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat. Indonesia


Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional Quo Vadis

Oleh: Bpk. Satria Dharma
(Direktur The Centre for the Betterment of Education (CBE))

Ketertinggalan di berbagai bidang di era globalisasi dibandingkan negara-negara tetangga rupanya menyebabkan pemerintah terdorong untuk memacu diri untuk memiliki standar internasional. Sektor pendidikan termasuk yang didorong untuk berstandar internasional. Dorongan itu bahkan dicantumkan di dalam :

UU No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sisdiknas pasal 50 ayat (3) yang berbunyi, “Pemerintah dan/atau pemerintah daerah menyelenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu satuan pendidikan pada semua jenjang pendidikan, untuk dikembangkan menjadi satuan pendidikan yang bertaraf internasional. “.

Dengan berbekal keinginan kuat dan ayat itu maka Depdiknas segera mengeluarkan program Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (SBI) yang proyek rintisannya saja telah menyertakan ratusan SMP dan SMA di hampir semua Kabupaten/Kota di seluruh Indonesia dengan menggelontorkan dana ratusan milyar meski peraturan pemerintah yang mengatur pengelolaan seperti itu belum ada. Ini proyek prestisius karena akan dibiayai oleh Pemerintah Pusat 50%, Pemerintah Propinsi 30 %, dan Pemerintah Kabupaten/Kota 20%. Padahal, untuk setiap sekolahnya saja Pemerintah Pusat mengeluarkan 300 juta rupiah setiap tahun paling tidak selama 3 (tiga) tahun dalam masa rintisan tersebut.

Siapa saja yang nantinya akan masuk ke sekolah SBI ini? Siswa yang bisa masuk ke sekolah tersebut, adalah mereka yang dianggap sebagai bibit-bibit unggul yang telah diseleksi ketat dan yang akan diperlakukan secara khusus. Jumlah siswa di kelas akan dibatasi antara 24-30 per kelas. Kegiatan belajar mengajarnya akan menggunakan bilingual. Pada tahun pertama bahasa pengantar yang digunakan 25 persen bahasa Inggris 75 persen bahasa Indonesia. Pada tahun kedua bahasa pengantarnya masing-masing 50 persen untuk Inggris dan Indonesia. Pada tahun ketiga bahasa pengantar menggunakan 75 persen bahasa Inggris dan 25 persen bahasa Indonesia.

Karena dianggap sebagai bibit unggul maka siswa diprioritaskan untuk belajar ilmu eksakta dan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (ICT/Information and Communication Technology). Karenanya, siswa kelas khusus ini diberi fasilitas belajar tambahan berupa komputer dengan sambungan internet. Apa kurikulum yang akan diberikan kepada mereka agar ‘berstandar internasional’?

Tidak jelas betul karena hanya disebutkan rumusnya adalah SNP + X. SNP adalah Standar Nasional Pendidikan sedangkan X hanya disebutkan sebagai penguatan, pengayaan, pengembangan, perluasan, pendalaman, melalui adaptasi atau adopsi terhadap standar pendidikan baik dari dalam negeri maupun luar negeri yang diyakini telah memiliki reputasi mutu yang diakui secara internasional umpamanya Cambridge, IB, TOEFL/TOEIC, ISO, UNESCO.

Berapa dana yang harus dikeluarkan oleh orang tua yang ‘ngebet’ dengan program ini? Masih akan diatur. Tapi yang jelas orang tua harus merogoh koceknya dalam-dalam dan hanya orang tua yang kaya saja yang bisa masuk. Ini adalah program prestisius sehingga biayanya memang harus mahal!.

Semoga Saja Tidak! (Amin!)

References

Bibliography

  • Dodge, B. (1962). ‘Muslim Education in the Medieval Times’, The Middle East Institute, Washington D.C.
  • Education as Enforcement: The Militarization and Corporatization of Schools, edited by Kenneth J. Saltman and David A. Gabbard, RoutledgeFalmer 2003.review
  • Makdisi, G. (1980). ‘On the origin and development of the college in Islam and the West’, in Islam and the Medieval West, ed. Khalil I. Semaan, State University of New York Press
  • Nakosteen, M. (1964). ‘History of Islamic origins of Western Education AD 800-1350’, University of Colorado Press, Boulder, Colorado,
  • Ribera, J. (1928). ‘Disertaciones Y Opusculos’, 2 vols. Madrid
  • Spielhofer, Thomas, Tom Benton, Sandie Schagen. “A study of the effects of school size and single-sex education in English schools.” Research Papers in Education Jun. 2004:133 159, 27.
  • Toppo, Greg. "High-tech school security is on the rise." USA Today 9 Oct 2006.
  • Traditions and Encounters, by Jerry H. Bentley and Herb F. Ziegler

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