Kamis, 07 Agustus 2008

Pendidikan di Jepang

Research and Analysis for Education

http://www.japan-guide.com


Japan (日本 Nihon or Nippon?, officially 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku) is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, People's Republic of China, Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin country", which is why Japan is sometimes identified as the "Land of the Rising Sun".

Japan comprises over 3,000 islands[5] making it an archipelago. The largest islands are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and Shikoku, together accounting for 97% of Japan's land area. Most of the islands are mountainous, many volcanic; for example, Japan’s highest peak, Mount Fuji, is a volcano. Japan has the world's tenth largest population, with about 128 million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.

Archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan begins with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century A.D.

Influence from the outside world followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Japan's history. Since adopting its constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament, the Diet.

A major economic power,[6] Japan has the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP, after the United States. It is a member of the United Nations, G8, G4, OECD and APEC, with the world's fifth largest defense budget. It is also the world's fourth largest exporter and sixth largest importer. It is a developed country with high living standards (8th highest HDI) and a world leader in technology, machinery, and robotics.

Contents


Government

Legislature:
The Japanese parliament is called the Diet. It consists of the House of Representatives (480 members) and the House of Councillors (242 members). The members of the Diet are elected by the Japanese people.

Executive:
The cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister. The cabinet further consists of the ministers which are appointed by the prime minister and are usually members of the Diet. The prime minister is elected by the Diet.

Judiciary:
The highest court is the Supreme Court. Other courts are district courts, high courts, family courts, and summary courts. Judges are appointed by the cabinet.

Elections:
The minimum voting age is 20 years. Women received the right to vote in the new constitution. Elections for the House of Representatives are carried out every four years, and half of the House of Councillors is elected every three years. Beside the national elections there are prefectural and municipal elections.

The emperor does not have any effective power but is only the symbol of the state.

Any advice or questions? Voice them in the forum!

english links

The Prime Minister's Offical Residence
The official web site of the Prime Minister.
The House of Representatives (Shugiin)
Official web site.
The House of Councillors (Sangiin)
Official web site.
Cabinet Office
Official web site.
National Diet Library Homepage
Official web site.
MOFA's Web Server Network (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
Japanese embassies worldwide.
Foreign Government Offices in Japan (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
List of Embassies, Consulates and International Organizations in Japan.
Links to all the ministries are here.
Political parties:
Liberal Democratic Party of Japan
Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (Jiminto).
The Democratic Party of Japan
Democratic Party (Minshuto).
Komei Party
Komei Party (Komeito).
Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party (Kyosanto).

japanese links

The Prime Minister's Offical Residence
Official web site of the Prime Minister.
The House of Representatives
Official web site.
The House of Councillors
Official web site.
National Diet Library Homepage
Official web site.
Liberal Democratic Party of Japan
Liberal Democratic Party of Japan (Jiminto).
The Democratic Party of Japan
Democratic Party (Minshuto).
Komei Party
Komei Party (Komeito).
Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party (Kyosanto).
Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party (Shakaiminshuto).
New Party Japan
New Party Japan (Shinto Nippon).


Education in Japan

In successive international tests of mathematics, Japanese children consistently rank at or near the top (see TIMSS)[1]. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) is responsible for educational administration.

Contents


History

Formal education in Japan began with the adoption of Chinese culture in the 6th century. Buddhist and Confucian teachings as well as sciences, calligraphy, divination and literature were taught at the courts of Asuka, Nara and Heian. Scholar officials were chosen through an Imperial examination system. But contrary to China, the system never fully took hold and titles and posts at the court remained hereditary family possessions. The rise of the bushi, the military class, during the Kamakura period ended the influence of scholar officials, but Buddhist monasteries remained influential centers of learning.

During the Edo period (1603-1867), the daimyō vied for power in the largely pacified country. Since their influence could not be raised through war, they competed on the economic field. Their warrior-turned-bureaucrat Samurai elite had to be educated not only in military strategy and the martial arts, but also agriculture and accounting. Likewise, the wealthy merchant class needed education for their daily business, and their wealth allowed them to be patrons of arts and science. But temple schools (terakoya) educated peasants too, and it is estimated that at the end of the Edo period 50% of the male and 20% of the female population possessed some degree of literacy. Even though contact with foreign countries was restricted, books from China and Europe were eagerly imported and Rangaku ("Dutch studies") became a popular area of scholarly interest.

After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the methods and structures of Western learning were adopted as a means to make Japan a strong, modern nation. Students and even high-ranking government officials were sent abroad to study, such as the Iwakura mission. Foreign scholars, the so-called o-yatoi gaikokujin, were invited to teach at newly founded universities and military academies. Compulsory education was introduced, mainly after the Prussian model. By 1890, only 20 years after the resumption of full international relations, Japan discontinued employment of the foreign consultants.

The rise of militarism led to the use of the education system to prepare the nation for war. The military even sent its own instructors to schools. After the defeat in World War II, the allied occupation government set an education reform as one of its primary goals, to eradicate militarist teachings and "democratize" Japan. The education system was rebuilt after the American model.

The end of the 1960s were a time of student protests around the world, and also in Japan. The main subject of protest was the Japan-U.S. security treaty. A number of reforms were carried out in the post-war period until today. They aimed at easing the burden of entrance examinations, promoting internationalization and information technologies, diversifying education and supporting lifelong learning.


Studying in Japan
basic information

More than 100,000 international students are currently studying at universities, junior colleges, professional schools and other educational institutions in Japan. Their number has been increasing rapidly since the 1980s, with two thirds of the students coming from China.

Visa Matters

Short time studies at Japanese language schools are permitted on a tourist visa. All other foreign student in Japan need a student visa in order to study in Japan. Visa applicants require an educational institution as their sponsor in order to obtain a student visa.

Student visa holders are not allowed to engage in any paid activities, unless they get the permission of the school and the immigration office. Even then, students may work only a set maximum number of hours per week. Working on a tourist visa is prohibited.

Language Schools

Japanese language schools exist in many cities across Japan, ranging from informal conversation schools to government recognized institutions that offer preparatory courses for students to enroll at universities.

There are language schools for all proficiency levels, and courses of different durations from just a few weeks to more than one year.

Universities

The Examination for Japanese University Admission for International Students (EJU) is a standard examination in existence since 2002, simplifying the process of admission to Japanese universities for international students.

The examination covers the Japanese language, science, mathematics, Japan and the World and is held biannually in Japan and selected cities outside of Japan. The examination can be written in Japanese or English (except the section on Japanese language; some testing sites don't offer tests in English).

Almost all national universities, about two thirds of the public universities and roughly half of the private universities use the EJU as admission criteria for international students, while the others apply their own entrance exams.

Naturally, most university courses in Japan are only available in Japanese, although quite a few universities offer one or more English courses at a master's and/or doctoral level. Only a handful of universities offer English courses on the undergraduate (bachelor) level.

Scholarships and Exchange Programs

Scholarship programs for international students are provided by the Japanese government, local governments, the Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO) and private organizations, foundations and companies in Japan and abroad.

Likewise, there are various governmental bodies, organizations and educational institutions inside and outside of Japan that offer short term exchange programs for secondary and post secondary students to study in Japan and experience life in Japan.

Any advice or questions? Voice them in the forum!

english links

Study in Japan
Introductory guide by the government.
Japan Student Services Organization
Lots of information by the Japan Student Services Organization.
Japan Study Support
Information for international students, including databases of universities and scholarship programs.
Schools:
Inter-Cultural Institute of Japan
Located in central Tokyo, 10 minutes from Shinjuku station. With a 30 year history, over 17,000 students have studied here.
more language schools...


Study in Japan
Introductory guide by the government.
Japan Student Services Organization
Lots of information by the Japan Student Services Organization.






Budaya

Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Budaya Jepang

Budaya Jepang mencakup interaksi antara budaya asli Jomon yang kokoh dengan pengaruh dari luar negeri yang menyusul. Mula-mula China dan Korea banyak membawa pengaruh, bermula dengan perkembangan budaya Yayoi sekitar 300 SM. Gabungan tradisi budaya Yunani dan India, mempengaruhi seni dan keagamaan Jepang sejak abad ke-6 Masehi, dilengkapi dengan pengenalan agama Buddha sekte Mahayana. Sejak abad ke-16, pengaruh Eropa menonjol, disusul dengan pengaruh Amerika Serikat yang mendominasi Jepang setelah berakhirnya Perang Dunia II.

Jepun turut mengembangkan budaya yang original dan unik, dalam seni (ikebana, origami, ukiyo-e), kerajinan tangan (pahatan, tembikar, persembahan (boneka bunraku, tarian tradisional, kabuki, noh, rakugo), dan tradisi (permainan Jepang, onsen, sento, upacara minum teh, taman Jepang), serta makanan Jepang.

Kini, Jepang merupakan salah sebuah pengekspor budaya pop yang terbesar. Anime, manga, mode, film, kesusasteraan, permainan video, dan musik Jepang menerima sambutan hangat di seluruh dunia, terutama di negara-negara Asia yang lain. Pemuda Jepang gemar menciptakan trend baru dan kegemaran mengikut gaya mereka mempengaruhi mode dan trend seluruh dunia. Pasaran muda-mudi yang amat cemerlang membawa ujian kepada barang-barang pengguna elektronik yang baru, di mana gaya dan fungsinya ditentukan oleh pengguna Jepang, sebelum dipertimbangkan untuk diedarkan ke seluruh dunia.

Baru-baru ini Jepang mula mengekspor satu lagi komoditas budaya yang bernilai: olahragawan. Popularitas pemain bisbol Jepang di Amerika Serikat meningkatkan kesadaran warga negara Barat tersebut terhadap segalanya mengenai Jepang.

Orang Jepang biasanya gemar memakan makanan tradisi mereka. Sebagian besar acara TV pada waktu petang dikhususkan pada penemuan dan penghasilan makanan tradisional yang bermutu. Makanan Jepang mencetak nama di seluruh dunia dengan sushi, yang biasanya dibuat dari pelbagai jenis ikan mentah yang digabungkan dengan nasi dan wasabi. Sushi memiliki banyak penggemar di seluruh dunia. Makanan Jepang bertumpu pada peralihan musim, dengan menghidangkan mi dingin dan sashimi pada musim panas, sedangkan ramen panas dan shabu-shabu pada musim dingin.

Lihat juga: Katana, Seni dan Arsitektur Jepang, Kimono, Matsuri, Tahun Baru Jepang, Olahraga di Jepang, Acara televisi Jepang, Pariwisata di Jepang, Media di Jepang


Education and health

Yasuda Auditorium, University of Tokyo.

Yasuda Auditorium, University of Tokyo.

Primary, secondary schools and universities were introduced into Japan in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration.[95] Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan consists of elementary school and middle school, which lasts for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MEXT, about 75.9% of high school graduates attend a university, junior college, trade school, or other post-secondary institution in 2005.[96] Japan's education is very competitive,[97] especially for entrance to institutions of higher education. The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University.[98] The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Japanese knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds as the 6th best in the world.[99]

In Japan, healthcare services are provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health care insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.[100] Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice.[101]


References

  1. ^ CIA World Factbook[GDP PPP Rankings 2007]
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook[GDP PPP Per Capita Rankings 2007
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook[GDP Nominal Rankings 2007]
  4. ^ CIA World Factbook[Gini rankings]
  5. ^ "Nihon Rettō". Daijirin / Yahoo Japan dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  6. ^ a b c "World Factbook; Japan". CIA (2007-03-15). Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  7. ^ Teach Yourself Japanese Message Board
  8. ^ Habu Jinko (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge Press.

Further reading

External links

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