Minggu, 05 Oktober 2008

Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup


Mengggas Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup di Lingkungan Sekolah dan Masyarakat
di Daerah Bangunharja, Cisaga, Ciamis. Jawa Barat. Indonesia
(Sebuah Penelitian di Dusun Kuta)
Finalis Lomba Bayer Young Envoy. German

Overview
Kuta orchad is the one of six orchads situated in Karangpaniggal Village, in the daily life they still commited strongly to the customs and tradition that believed as the ancestors' legacy that should be maintained. The strong effort of the society to maintain the customs and tradition assumed that the family play important role actively in socializing to the member of the family.

In Partnership with the United Nations Environment Programme

Bayer - Young Enviromental Envoy


Bayer has a well-established tradition of environmental protection, which began more than 100 years ago when it set up its Wastewater Commission at its production plants at Leverkusen, Germany, in 1901. Since then Bayer has consistently stuck to the principle of more environmental protection, health protection, safety and Sustainable Development.
As a research-based enterprise, Bayer also places great emphasis on promoting science education for young people and has therefore been committed to promoting youth environmental programs for many years. In cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Bayer organizes and promotes a number of specific projects which aim to improve knowledge about the environment among young people and support them in their environmental commitment. One of these projects is the “Bayer Young Environmental Envoy Program”.

Under this program, selected students go to Germany on a weeklong study tour to experience how environmental protection is practiced by people, government and industry in one of the leading countries with regards to technology and environmental awareness.

The visit to the global headquarters of the Bayer Group in Germany demonstrates how companies – through product development and responsible manufacturing processes – contribute to sustainable development.

Initiated in 1998 as a local project in Thailand, the program included participants from the Philippines and Singapore from 2001 on. The program was further extended to India in 2002, China in 2003, Poland, Indonesia, Korea, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador in 2004, Peru as well as Kenya in 2005, to Vietnam and Malaysia in 2006 and to Turkey in 2007. In 2008, South Africa joins the program for the first time.

The program has received widespread praise. Philippine’s President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo describes the initiative as 'a meritorious project, particularly in the wake of pressing environmental problems in the country'. Associate Professor Ho Peng Kee, Singapore's Senior Minister of State for Law and Home Affairs said that Bayer has put together a program that deserves praise, and will stand to go a long way in promoting sustainable development among youth in Asia. Carmen Arévalo, Colombian Vice-Minister of the Environment said that “Corporate projects that give young people the opportunity to actively participate and discuss such an important issue are highly valuable, and the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development endorses this initiative of Bayer launched in the context of corporate social responsibility."

Teriama kasih Kepada:

1. Kak Cecep (Sekolah Sosial Bandung)
2. Kak Irfan Fauzi (IPDN)
Atas Karya Tulisnya Mengenai Kampung Kuta, Tambaksari, Rancah Kabupaten Ciamis.
Jawa Barat




Kepada:
Bapak. Uung Runalan Soedarmo (UNPAD)
Atas Tesisnya (Masyarakat Dusun Kuta)

To:

Julia I Wicki.
University of Bonn, Germany


Pembina:
1. Bpk. Wawan Nurwana & Ibunda Tining Sri Wahyu Dewi (Ayahanda dan Ibunda Terkasih)
2. Bpk. Taufik Hidayat, M.Sc., Ph.D. (Tokyo University)
3. Ibu. Dra. Setya Utari, M.Si. (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia)
4. Yusuf Kurniawan S.Pd. (SMKN 1 Ciamis)



Selayang Pandang

Pendidikan Lingkungan merupakan salah satu faktor penting untuk meminimalisasi kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup. Kegiatan tersebut menjadi sarana yang sangat penting dalam menghasilkan Sumber Daya Manusia yang dapat melaksanakan prinsip pembangunan berkelanjutan. Pendidikan Lingkungan dilakukan sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan pemahaman dan kepedulian masyarakat dalam mencari pemecahan dan pencegahan timbulnya masalah lingkungan.

Pendidikan Lingkungan tidak akan merubah situasi dan kondisi lingkungan yang rusak menjadi baik dalam waktu yang singkat, melainkan membutuhkan waktu, proses dan sumber daya. Atas dasar itulah Pendidikan Lingkungan Hidup sedini mungkin perlu diupayakan agar dapat meminimalisasi kerusakan-kerusakan lingkungan.

Dalam melaksanakan aktivitas pendidikan lingkungan hidup, disarankan untuk melakukan tahapan perencanaan dan persiapan, yang meliputi: pendalaman materi, penyusunan modul, dan persiapan kegiatan.

Hal-hal yang dilakukan dalam perencanaan kegiatan pendidikan lingkungan hidup adalah:

1. Tentukan tujuan umum-khusus
2. Tentukan tema
3. Pilih obyek
4. Susun alur kegiatan
5. Persiapkan alat bantu
6. Pelaksanaan kegiatan
7. Evaluasi kegiatan

Penyusunan modul PLH Non Formal dilakukan setelah ditemukan tema yang akan dijadikan sebagai sentral topik pendidikan lingkungan hidup. Adapun struktur dari modul PLH sekurangnya meliputi:

1. Tema Kegiatan

Tema kegiatan merupakan aspek utama dari kegiatan yang akan dilakukan. Misalnya saja tema ”Panas Dingin” untuk menggambarkan kondisi di kawasan hutan dan di kawasan tak berhutan.

2. Tujuan Umum/Khusus

Tujuan adalah hal-hal yang ingin dicapai dari pelaksanaan kegiatan. Tujuan umum merupakan hal besar/umum yang ingin diwujudkan, sedangkan tujuan khusus adalah pencapaian secara spesifik/khusus. Misalnya: Tujuan umum: Mengetahui fungsi hutan. Tujuan khusus: mengetahui fungsi hutan sebagai pelindung

3. Alat dan Bahan

Alat dan bahan adalah rincian peralatan dan bahan-bahan yang diperlukan dalam melakukan kegiatan PLH. Sangat disarankan untuk melakukan pendataan serinci mungkin agar tak ada yang terlupakan saat pelaksanaan kegiatan.

4. Obyek

Obyek merupakan hal yang ingin diamati (bila ada)

5. Waktu

Waktu menunjukkan lamanya kegiatan akan dilakukan. Dalam penulisan waktu, juga dapat dilakukan bersama dengan penulisan setiap setiap tahapan alur yang akan dilaksanaan. Semakin detail akan sangat membantu bagi fasilitator PLH.

6. Metoda

Metoda merupakan penggambaran umum terhadap metoda yang digunakan dalam pelaksanaan kegiatan. Misalnya diskusi, permainan, dll.

7. Alur kegiatan

Alur kegiatan merupakan rincian tahapan kegiatan secara terstruktur.

8. Evaluasi

Evaluasi menegaskan cara melakukan penilaian terhadap indikator keberhasilan kegiatan. Disini dituliskan tentang apa dan bagaimana evaluasi dilakukan.

9. Catatan

Catatan fasilitator merupakan bagian terakhir yang menjadi tambahan bila saja ada hal-hal penting yang belum masuk dalam bagian lain di modul. Catatan juga berfungsi sebagai pengingat bagi fasilitator PLH.



Abstract

Environmental education ("EE") refers to organized efforts to teach about how natural environments function and, particularly, how human beings can manage their behavior and ecosystems in order to live sustainably. The term is often used to imply education within the school system, from primary to post-secondary. However, it is sometimes used more broadly to include all efforts to educate the public and other audiences, including print materials, websites, media campaigns, etc. Related disciplines include outdoor education and experiential education.

History

The United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) created three major declarations that have guided the course of environmental education.

Stockholm Declaration

June 5-16 1972-The Declaration of the United Nations Conference on Human Environment. The document was made up of 7 proclamations and 26 principles "to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment.

The Belgrade Charter

October 13-22 1975-The Belgrade Charter was the outcome of the International Workshop on Environmental Education held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The Belgrade Charter was built upon the Stockholm Declaration and adds goals, objectives, and guiding principles of environmental education programs. It defines an audience for environmental education, which includes the general public.

The Tbilisi Declaration

October 14-26 1977-The Tbilisi Declaration "noted the unanimous accord in the important role of environmental education in the preservation and improvement of the world's environment, as well as in the sound and balanced development of the world's communities." The Tbilisi Declaration updated and clarified The Stockholm Declaration and The Belgrade Charter by including new goals, objectives, characteristics, and guiding principles of environmental education.

Antecedents

In the United States some of the antecedents of Environmental Education were Nature Studies, Conservation Education and School Camping. Nature studies integrated academic approach with outdoor exploration (Roth, 1978). Conservation Education brought awareness to the misuse of natural resources. George Perkins Marsh discoursed on humanity’s integral part of the natural world. The governmental agencies like the Forestry Service and the EPA were also pushing a conservation agenda. Conservation ideals still guide environmental education today. School Camping was exposure to the environment and use of resources outside of the classroom for educational purposes. The legacies of these antecedents are still present in the evolving arena of environmental education.

About

Environmental education has been considered an additional or elective subject in much of traditional K-12 curriculum. At the elementary school level, environmental education can take the form of science enrichment curriculum, natural history field trips, community service projects, and participation in outdoor science schools. In secondary school, environmental curriculum can be a focused subject within the sciences or is a part of student interest groups or clubs. At the undergraduate and graduate level, it can be considered its own field within education, environmental studies, environmental science and policy, ecology, or human/cultural ecology programs.

The North American Association for Environmental Education [1] has established the following "Guidelines for Excellence" for environmental education:

1. Fairness and accuracy: EE materials should be fair and accurate in describing environmental problems, issues, and conditions, and in reflecting the diversity of perspectives on them. 1.1 Factual accuracy. 1.2 Balanced presentation of differing viewpoints and theories. 1.3 Openness to inquiry. 1.4 Reflection of diversity.

2. Depth: EE materials should foster an awareness of the natural and built environment, an understanding of environmental concepts, conditions, and issues, and an awareness of the feelings, values, attitudes, and perceptions at the heart of environmental issues, as appropriate for different developmental levels. 2.1 Awareness. 2.2 Focus on concepts. 2.3 Concepts in context. 2.4 Attention to different scales.

3. Emphasis on skills building: EE materials should build lifelong skills that enable learners to address environmental issues. 3.1 Critical and creative thinking. 3.2 Applying skills to issues. 3.3 Action skills.

4. Action orientation: EE materials should promote civic responsibility, encouraging learners to use their knowledge, personal skills, and assessments of environmental issues as a basis for environmental problem solving and action. 4.1 Sense of personal stake and responsibility. 4.2 Self-efficacy.

5. Instructional soundness: EE materials should rely on instructional techniques that create an effective learning environment. 5.1 Learner-centered instruction. 5.2 Different ways of learning. 5.3 Connection to learners’ everyday lives. 5.4 Expanded learning environment. 5.5 Interdisciplinary. 5.6 Goals and objectives. 5.7 Appropriateness for specific learning settings. 5.8 Assessment.

6. Usability: EE materials should be well designed and easy to use. 6.1 Clarity and logic. 6.2 Easy to use. 6.3 Long lived. 6.4 Adaptable. 6.5 Accompanied by instruction and support. 6.6 Make substantiated claims. 6.7 Fit with national, state, or local requirements.

Related disciplines

Environmental education has crossover with the disciplines of outdoor education and experiential education. Both disciplines complement environmental education yet have unique philosophies.

  • Outdoor education means learning "in" and "for" the outdoors. It is a means of curriculum extension and enrichment through outdoor experiences." (Hammerman, 1980, p. 33) Environmental education is often taught or enhanced through outdoor experiences. The out of doors experience while not strictly environmental in nature often contain elements of teaching about the environment.
  • Experiential education is a process through which a learner constructs knowledge, skill, and value from direct experiences" (AEE, 2002, p. 5) Experiential education can be viewed as both a process and method to deliver the ideas and skills associated with environmental education.

While each of these disciplines have their own objectives, there are points where both disciplines overlap with the intentions and philosophy of environmental education.

Trends

One of the current trends within environmental education seeks to move from an approach of ideology and activism to one that allows students to make informed decisions and take action based on experience as well as data. Within this process, environmental curricula have progressively been integrated into governmental education standards. Some environmental educators find this movement distressing and a move away from the original political and activist approach to environmental education while others find this approach more valid and accessible.[citation needed]

Movement

There is a movement that has progressed since the relatively recent founding (1960s) of the idea of environmental education in industrial societies, which has transported the participant from nature appreciation and awareness to education for an ecologically sustainable future. This trend may be viewed as a microcosm of how many environmental education programs seek to first engage with participants through developing a sense of nature appreciation which is then translated into actions that affect conservation and sustainability.

See also

References

  • Gruenewald, D.A., 2004, A Foucauldian analysis of environmental education: toward the socioecological challenge of the Earth Charter, Curriculum Inquiry 34(1):71-107.
  • Malone, K. 1999, Environmental education researchers as environmental activists, Environmental Education Research 5(2):163-177.
  • Palmer, J.A., 1998, Environmental Education in the 21st Century: Theory, Practice, Progress, and Promise, Routledge.
  • Science (ed.), 1997, Overhauling environmental education, Science, 276:361.
  • Smyth, J.C. 2006, Environment and education: a view of a changing scene, Environmental Education Research 12(3,4):247-264.
  • Roth, Charles E. “Off the Merry-Go-Round and on to the Escalator”. In From Ought to Action in Environmental Education, edited by William B. Stapp, pp. 12-23. Columbus, OH: SMEAC Information Reference Center, 1978. Ed 159 046.

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