(Banjar Innovation Research & Development School)
Memecahkan Permasalahan Kota Banjar dengan Inovasi, Riset dan Pengembangan
1. Memperkenalkan apa itu Riset (Penelitian), Inovasi dan Pengembangan kepada Masyarakat Kota Banjar pada Umumnya dan Siswa Sekolah Kota Banjar pada khususnya.
2. Meningkatkan jumlah tulisan ilmiah di Kota Banjar untuk memecahkan permasalahan-permasalahan seputar pendidikan, Ekonomi, Kesehatan dan Sains Teknologi di Kota Banjar
Penelitian ilmiah adalah rangkaian pengamatan yang sambung menyambung, berakumulasi dan melahirkan teori-teori yang mampu menjelaskan dan meramalkan fenomena-fenomena . Penelitian ilmiah sering diasosiasikan dengan metode ilmiah sebagai tata cara sistimatis yang digunakan untuk melakukan penelitian.
Penelitian ilmiah juga menjadi salah satu cara untuk menjelaskan gejala-gejala alam. Adanya penelitian ilmiah membuat ilmu berkembang, karena hipotesis-hipotesis yang dihasilkan oleh penelitian ilmiah seringkali mengalami retroduksi.
Tiga tahap penelitian ilmiah
Penelitian ilmiah biasanya melalui tiga tahap yaitu: konseptualisasi, operasionalisasi, dan observasi.
Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The primary aim for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so.
Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.
Historical research is embodied in the historical method.
The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject.
- 1 Basic research
- 2 Research processes
- 3 Research methods
- 4 Publishing
- 5 Research funding
- 6 Etymology
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The term innovation means a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental, radical, and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. A distinction is typically made between Invention, an idea made manifest, and innovation, ideas applied successfully. In many fields, something new must be substantially different to be innovative, not an insignificant change, e.g., in the arts, economics, business and government policy. In economics the change must increase value, customer value, or producer value. The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.
Innovation is an important topic in the study of economics, business, technology, sociology, and engineering. Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often used as synonymous with the output of the process. However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers.
Those who are directly responsible for application of the innovation are often called pioneers in their field, whether they are individuals or organisations.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Conceptualizing innovation
- 3 Innovation and market outcome
- 4 Sources of innovation
- 5 Value of experimentation in innovation
- 6 Diffusion of innovations
- 7 Goals of innovation
- 8 Failure of innovation
- 9 Measures of innovation
- 10 Public awareness
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of (hu)man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications [sic]" 
Scientific method refers to bodies of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.
Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, identifiable features distinguish scientific inquiry from other methodologies of knowledge. Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena, and design experimental studies to test these hypotheses. These steps must be repeatable in order to dependably predict any future results. Theories that encompass wider domains of inquiry may bind many hypotheses together in a coherent structure. This in turn may help form new hypotheses or place groups of hypotheses into context.
Among other facets shared by the various fields of inquiry is the conviction that the process be objective to reduce a biased interpretation of the results. Another basic expectation is to document, archive and share all data and methodology so they are available for careful scrutiny by other scientists, thereby allowing other researchers the opportunity to verify results by attempting to reproduce them. This practice, called full disclosure, also allows statistical measures of the reliability of these data to be established.
- 1 Introduction to scientific method
- 2 Truth and belief
- 3 Elements of scientific method
- 3.1 DNA example
- 3.2 Characterizations
- 3.3 Hypothesis development
- 3.4 Predictions from the hypothesis
- 3.5 Experiments
- 4 Evaluation and iteration
- 5 Models of scientific inquiry
- 6 Philosophy and sociology of science
- 7 Communication, community, culture
- 8 History
- 9 Relationship with mathematics
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes and references
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Pendidikan Fisika, FPMIPA, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Follower Open Course Ware at MIT-Harvard University.
Semoga Bermanfaat, Terima Kasih dan Tetap Bersemangat.