Jumat, 24 September 2010

Akreditasi Perguruan Tinggi

Akreditasi Perguruan Tinggi or Accreditation status of a university / college is a reflection of performance in question and describe the quality, efficiency, and relevance of an organized program of study.

Currently there are two types of accreditation given by the government to study programs in universities, namely:

1. Registered status, Recognized, or equated given to Private Colleges

2. Accredited status or Nir-accreditation given to all universities (State Universities, Private Colleges, and Universities official).

Because of the two accreditation status which are equally valid, there are currently bearing the PTS both for his study program. This occurs because the process of granting accreditation status is done through two different paths after the establishment of the National Accreditation Board of Higher Education (BAN-PT). Previously, determination of status is based on Directorate General of Higher Education No. SE. 470/D/T/1996.

Then the government sets, for the implementation of the accreditation of a PTS / PTS unit, to the extent not yet been evaluated (accredited) by or through the BAN-PT, will still be conducted under the rules above, but when a PTS / PTS unit has been evaluated (accredited) by or via the BAN-PT, then the subsequent execution of the relevant accreditation of private universities be carried out based on criteria or Accreditation of BAN-PT.

To better understand the meaning of these two types of accreditation status, the need to see the provision of status before the BAN-PT and the difference with accreditation status granted after the BAN-PT.

Before the establishment of the National Accreditation Board

In the Article 52 of Chapter XI of the Law on National Education System in 1989 stated that the government shall supervise the implementation of education undertaken by the government or by society in order to develop the development of the educational unit concerned.

But until the establishment of Higher Education Accreditation Board (BAN-PT) accreditation was only made to Private Colleges, so that accreditation is defined as a government's recognition of the existence of higher education held by the public.

Determination / Accreditation Status PTS improvement is based on the Director General of Higher Education No. SE. 470/D/T/1996 to the granting of the status of Registered, Recognized, and equated to the study program at a college. Accreditation status is not granted to the institution, but to each course of study in private universities concerned. Thus, there may be some private universities have some courses with accreditation status different.

In conducting an assessment of the accreditation program of study conducted on a regular basis, namely an assessment of infrastructure and facilities, faculty, and program management education.

Private University who became the object of accreditation is not static, but constantly being in the dynamics. It may be better because of progress-progress, or vice versa can also be a retreat because of failures. Therefore, the government deems it necessary to set a validity period of accreditation status granted to a particular course.

Expiration of Accreditation Status of Private Higher Education Study Program



Terdaftar 5 years
Recognized 4 years
equated 3 years

After the establishment of the National Accreditation Board

In December 1994 appointed by BAN-PT to assist the government in an effort to perform the duties and obligations to supervise the quality and efficiency of higher education. Formation of BAN-PT is shown that the accreditation of universities in Indonesia is basically the responsibility of government and applies to all universities, both public and private. This also shows the government's intention and concern in the implementation of college coaching, serving the interests of society, and the progress of science and technology to improve people's lives and enrich the national culture.

Because no longer distinguish between public and private, the sense in the world of higher education accreditation is recognition of an educational institution which guarantees minimum standards so that graduates meet the qualifications to continue their education at higher education or enter the specialization, or to be able to run the practice of his profession (to Recognize an educational institution as maintaining standards That qualify the graduates for admission to higher or more specialized institutions or for professional practice).

Accreditation of higher education adopted in the national education system is intended to assess the implementation of higher education. The assessment was directed at the dual objectives, namely:

1. inform the community college performance
2. suggests steps that need to be coaching mainly by universities and government, and citizen participation.

Recognition ratings given by the government on higher education is based on the results of college accreditation conducted by BAN-PT, by accreditation, including accreditation bodies and accreditation courses.

Assessment criteria for accreditation of institutions consists of:

1. Licenses for the operation of higher education
2. The requirements and feasibility of higher education
3. The relevance of the implementation of educational programs with the development
4. Performance of college
5. College management efficiency.

Assessment criteria for accreditation of study program consists of:

1. Identity
2. Permit the administration of
3. Conformity with the administration of laws and crustaceans
4. The relevance of the administration of
5. Facilities and infrastructure
6. Efficiency of the administration of
7. Productivity studies program
8. Quality of graduates.

Classification rating for all the criteria are determined by three aspects, namely the quality (weight 50%), efficiency (25%), and relevance (25%).


The National Accreditation Agency for Higher Education (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi), well-known as BAN-PT is an independent agency for evaluation, which has main tasks to decide adequacy of program and or education unit at higher education level, referring to national standards of education. Higher education accreditation is the evaluation of adequacy of program and or institution of higher education, based on criteria, which have been decided to provide quality assurance to the community. To undertake higher education accreditation, the Government establishes National Accreditation Agency for Higher Education (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi – BAN-PT). BAN-PT is a non-structural, non-profit, and independent agency under the National Education Minister.

Study Program Accreditation Process

Prior to accreditation, the study program should fulfil BAN-PT requirement of eligibility by showing operational licence. Before applying for accreditation, the study program shall conduct self-evaluation process referring to the Guideline for Self-evaluation, published by BAN-PT. BAN-PT provides eligible applying study program with a set of accreditation instrument to be worked out and returned them together with the summary of self-evaluation report in three copies (for Diploma and Undergraduate study programs) or four copies (for Master and Doctor study programs), and two copies of recorded CD.

BAN-PT verifies the accreditation documents and prepares them for desk evaluation. Two assessors (for Diploma and Undergraduate study programs) or three assessors (for Master and Doctor study programs) shall review and assess the accreditation documents at a desk evaluation session. Referring to the desk evaluation findings, the same assessors shall immediately conduct site visit to the related study program, and within one week after vanishing the site visit they shall report to BAN-PT. BAN-PT verifies and validates the assessors’ report to be ready for BAN-PT plenary final judgment. BAN-PT announces the accreditation result to the accredited study programs and other related stakeholders. BAN-PT provides the accredited study programs with accreditation certificate and recommendation for further program development and improvement. The accreditation cycle shall be repeatedly conducted every five years. The whole cycle of study program accreditation process is summarized in the following diagram.

Model Accreditation Program of study used to assess this university can be illustrated as shown below :

Study Program Accreditation Process

Accreditation bodies which had been visited for comparative studies among other things:

1. Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technological (Abet), in the United States.
2. Australian Universities Quality Agency (AUQA), in Australia.
3. Council for Higher Education Accreditation (Chea), in the United States.
4. National Accreditation Agency (State Accreditation Institute - LAN), in Malaysia.
5. National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), in the United States.
6. Quality Assurance Agency (QAA), in England.
7. Accrediting Philippine Association of Schools, Colleges, and Universities (PAASCU)

Basic Concept of Accreditation

Accreditation is known as a process of deciding quality standards, and assessing and evaluating institutional performance based on the decided standards. In higher education system, institution includes higher education institution (university, institute, college, academy, polytechnic), and their study programs. It is a kind of external evaluation of related institution. These types of higher education institution have their own specific characteristics concerning their functions, management system, program contents, and student profile.

Accreditation is understood as a decision of quality standard and evaluation of an educational institution (higher education institution) by an external agency. The criteria for higher education accreditation are varied due to the variation of interpretation of the higher education nature.

Barnet (as quoted by BAN-PT in General Guideline for Accreditation of Higher Education, 2005, pages 20-21) points out there are at least four meaning or concepts of the nature of higher education institution.

a) Higher education institution as a producer of qualified manpower. In this case, higher education is interpreted as a process, and the students are considered as raw input, and the graduates are considered as output with certain value in the related job market, and the success is measured in terms of the graduates absorption in the related community as labor force (employment rate) and sometimes it is also measured in terms of graduates’ income level in their career.
b) Higher education institution as a training institution for researcher career. Higher education institution quality is determined by performance and achievements on the institution’s staff in research. The quality is measured in terms of the number of staff awarded in their research activities (in national and or international levels, e.g. obtaining Nobel Prize), or research funds obtained by the institution and or its individual staff, or the number of scientific publications in accredited scientific journals or magazines.
c) Higher education institution as an efficient organization for educational management. Its quality is measured in terms of the increase of available resources and fund, the number of students and graduates.
d) Higher education institution as a vehicle for the efforts to enrich human life. Institutional success is measured in terms of speed of growing number of students and variety of offered programs. The student-staff ratio and student fees are also used as institution success indicators.

The Indonesia’s higher education institutions have certain characteristics containing components of the four types of higher education institution concepts.

Models of Accreditation

BAN-PT adopts two accreditation models, i.e. study program accreditation, and higher education institution accreditation. The two models are conducted based on the same dimensions and standards, and focused to the same aspects.

A. Dimensions

a. Input
b. Process
c. Output, Outcomes

B. Accreditation Standards

Initially, accreditation of Diploma/Undergraduate study program, Postgraduate study programs, and Institutional applied different set of standards.

Fifteen standards were applied for Higher Education Institution accreditation, i.e.
1. Leadership
2. Student affaires
3. Human resource
4. Curriculum
5. Infrastructure and facilities
6. Financing
7. Governance
8. Management system
9. Instructional system
10. Academic atmosphere
11. Information system
12. Quality assurance system
13. Graduates
14. Research and community service
15. Study programs

Eleven standards for Doctor Study Program accreditation:
1. Vision, mission, aims and objective of study program
2. Program management and governance
3. Students and guidance service
4. Curriculum
5. Lecturer and supporting staff
6. Facilities and infrastructure
7. Funding
8. Learning process and evaluation of student achievement
9. Research and dissertation
10. Academic atmosphere
11. Graduates and other products.

Fourteen standards for Diploma, Undergraduate, and Master’s Study Program accreditation:
1. Integrity, identity, vision, mission, aims and objectives
2. Students affairs
3. Faculty members and supporting staff
4. Curriculum
5. Facilities and infrastructure
6. Supporting funding
7. Governance
8. Program management
9. Learning system
10. Academic atmosphere
11. Information system
12. Quality assurance system
13. Graduates
14. Research, community service, publication, thesis, and other products.

Since 2009, undergraduate study program and institutional accreditations, and by 2010, all levels of study program and higher education institution will apply the same accreditation standards as follows.
1. Vision, mission, objectives, aims, and attaining strategies.
2. Governance, leadership, management system, and quality assurance.
3. Student and graduate.
4. Human resource.
5. Curriculum, instruction, and academic atmosphere.
6. Finance, facilities, infrastructure, and information system.
7. Research, community service, and partnership.

C. Aspects to Be Assessed

There are five aspects that should be assessed in both study program and institutional accreditation, i.e. relevance, academic atmosphere, institutional management, sustainability, and efficiency.

Relevance is degree of relationship between study program objectives, output/outcome with societal needs at the surrounding environment and global society.

Academic atmosphere shows conducive climate for academic activities, interaction between students and lecturers, between students and students, and between lecturers and lecturers to optimize student learning process.

Institutional Management, including leadership, feasibility, and adequacy. Leadership reflects degree of management capacity and capability to organize resources for optimum program goal attainment. Feasibility reflects degree of accuracy of input, process, and output, as well as program objectives as seen from normative ideal measures. Adequacy, reflects degree of attainment of threshold requirement needed for undertaking a program.

Sustainability, including continuity, selectivity, and equity. Continuity reflects program persistency guaranteed by adequate input, instructional activities, and optimum goal attainment. Selectivity shows degree of program management capability to select input, instructional process, research, and decision of priority of expected output and outcome, baser on consideration of available capacity. Equity reflects degree intention to provide fair and equal opportunities for every one to participate in the program.

Efficiency, is degree of capability to employ available resources for obtaining optimum results. It includes punctuality, effectiveness, and productivity. Punctuality shows degree of exactness in spending time to accomplish program activities. Effectiveness is degree of capability to attain expected program objectives, measured by the acquisition of expected output and outcome. Productivity reflects degree of success of instructional process in utilizing input, measured by the existence of concrete products.

The following diagram shows elaborated aspects, which should be considered in accreditation assessment.

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